Materials used in a Spatial Learning Skills study

Here we report an extract of the materials, methods and results used in a study with blind and visually impaired children. To read more, download the paper.

A: Child performing the tactile symbol recognition test. B: Tactile symbol recognition and enumeration in noise test. C: Memory spanning of sequences of tactile symbols test.

A: Experimental setup with a tactile display on the left side and the PC running PadDraw software on the right side. Picture shows an example of trial of the spatial memory test. B: Spatial memory test with 4×4 matrix and 4 targets. C: Shapes recognition test with a rectangle (top-left) as target and three distractors.

Possible geometrical shapes of the shapes recognition test. The first row from the top shows the three possible canonical shapes. The rows from the second to the fourth show the possible distractors. Each row from the second to the fourth shows one of the three possible levels of difficulty of distractors in decreasing order (3,2,1).

Normalized accuracy enhancement (SEM indicated) across sessions in the shapes recognition test (A) and in the spatialmemory test (B) using programmable tactile displays. Asterisks indicate a significantly larger accuracy enhancement relative to the baseline (* P<0.05)

Leo, F., Cocchi, E., & Brayda, L. (2017). The Effect of Programmable Tactile Displays on Spatial Learning Skills in Children and Adolescents of Different Visual Disability. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering25(7), 861-872.
Download the paper PDF here